Let’s have a look at what we have achieved so far. We can write a bundle with a component, some startup and shutdown code, and we can deploy it in the OSGi framework. While this is nice to have, component based development only makes sense if we can have several components that build on each other and interact.
Having several components is easy, we simply write several bundles. But how about the interaction? Can classes from one component simply be used by another component? Well, they cannot. As I mentioned in a footnote earlier, OSGi is on its basic layer not a component framework. Rather, its a framework for managing modules – which sometimes happen to be components1.
Modularity is about “separating the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable modules” (Wikipedia).
So far, the topic of modularity has only shown up when we used the
BundleActivator for the first time in our own bundle. In order to get
access to the interface in the runtime environment, we had to
add the header
Import-Package: org.osgi.framework” to the
When using OSGi, everything that a module comprises of is assembled in a
jar (the “bundle”), and the Java package that provides the module’s public
API is explicitly declared as such in that jar’s manifest. (Of course,
a module may export several packages if it has a complex API.) We haven’t made
use of this feature in our sample bundle (as we don’t provide anything, there is
nothing to export), but an
Export-Package header could be seen as one of the
headers of the Felix System Bundle.
Making use of another module is, of course, also part of a module’s interface.
Such a dependency on another module, which provides a specific package, should
therefore be explicitly declared as well. This is enforced by OSGi, and it
is the reason why we had to add the
Import-Package header to our bundle’s
When you think of the special case of a library bundle, export (and import, if your library depends on another library) is actually all there is. A library is just a bunch of functionality provided by several classes. A library doesn’t really qualify as a module, because libraries aren’t interchangeable. Once you have decided to use, let’s say “Apache Commons Collections” in your project, you’re bound to that library unless you change your code. There is no alternative implementation with the same API.
Encapsulating internals of a module and making only the public API available is a first step to achieve independency and interchangeability. For fully reaching these goals, it must be possible to configure the provider of a required feature (i.e. the implementor of the API) during deployment or even choose among several providers at runtime.
In Java 6, “a well-known set of interfaces and (usually) abstract classes”
became termed as a “service” and a specific implementation of a service
as a “service provider”. You find those definitions in the description
of the central support class for this approach, the
Note that the use of the term “service” in this context is similar but not identical to its usage in the context of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). SOA focuses on distributed systems while in our context a service is simply defined by an API and used by getting an implementation class for that API and calling its methods (no networking or other overhead involved).
In order to achieve the strict decoupling of modules, a provider
for a given service must be looked up in some kind of directory, using
something like the
ServiceLoader. You may not directly instantiate an
implementation class – as you do when using a library –, because if
you did, you couldn’t interchange the
providing module without changing your code. In order to meet the special
possibilities and requirements that originate in being able to deploy bundles
dynamically, OSGi defines its own implementation of a service directory
and API as a service layer on top of the modules layer.
OSGi, with its various specifications, addresses several, mostly independent topics. This makes articles about OSGi sometimes hard to understand. At its core, it really is about managing modules. ↩